Rare Factors Deficiencies

A number of rare bleeding disorders exist. Clotting factors are proteins in the blood that control bleeding. If any of the clotting factors are missing or not working properly, the normal steps leading to coagulation are blocked. When this happens, the blood clot does not form and the bleeding continues for longer than it should. A deficiency of any one of these clotting factors can cause a rare bleeding disorder. Here is a brief overview of rare clotting factor deficiencies.

  • Factor I Deficiency: Factor I (1) deficiency is a term used to describe a group of rare inherited blood disorders caused by a deficiency in fibrinogen, another blood protein important in forming of a blood clot. Fibrinogen helps the body form a fibrin mesh around the clot to keep it firm while healing takes place. In people who have factor I (1) deficiency, the body may produce less fibrinogen than it should, no fibrinogen, or fibrinogen that doesn’t work properly. Common symptoms include nosebleeds, easy bruising, heavy menstrual bleeding (called menorrhagia), muscle bleeds, joint bleeds, umbilical cord bleeding, bleeding in the mouth (for example, after dental work), and problems during pregnancy, such as miscarriage.

 

  • Factor II Deficiency: Factor II (2) deficiency is an inherited disorder caused by a problem with factor II (2) (called prothrombin). In this bleeding disorder, either the body is producing less prothrombin than it should or the prothrombin does not work properly. Common symptoms of factor II (2) deficiency differ from person to person. Common symptoms include nosebleeds, easy bruising, heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), bleeding into the joints, muscle bleeds, and bleeding in the mouth (for example, after dental work).

 

  • Factor V Deficiency: Factor V (5) deficiency is an inherited disorder in which either the body produces an insufficient amount of factor V (5) or factor V (5) does not work properly. Common symptoms of factor V (5) deficiency are generally mild; in fact, some people may experience no symptoms at all. Children with a severe factor V (5) deficiency may bleed early in life. Common symptoms of factor V (5) deficiency include nosebleeds, easy bruising, heavy menstrual bleeding (called menorrhagia), and bleeding in the mouth (for example, after dental work).

 

  • Combined Factor V (5) and Factor Vlll (8) Deficiency: Combined factor V (5) and VIII (8) deficiency is an inherited disorder in which the amount of these two factors in the body is lower than normal. This combined deficiency is completely different from factor V (5) deficiency and factor VIII (8) deficiency. Common symptoms are generally mild and include skin bleeding, heavy menstrual bleeding (called menorrhagia), bleeding in the mouth (for example, after dental work), bleeding after circumcision, and abnormal bleeding during or after surgery, injury, or childbirth.

 

  • Factor Vll (7) Deficiency: Factor VII (7) deficiency is an inherited disorder in which either the body produces less factor VII (7) than it should or factor VII (7) does not work properly. The symptoms of factor VII (7) deficiency differ from person to person. Common symptoms include nosebleeds, easy bruising, heavy menstrual bleeding (called menorrhagia), bleeding in the mouth (for example, after dental work), bleeding in the head (newborns), and heavy bleeding after circumcision.

 

  • Factor X (10) Deficiency: Factor X (10) deficiency is an inherited disorder in which the body produces less factor X (10) than it needs or factor X (10) does not work properly. People with severe factor X (10) deficiency can have serious bleeding episodes. Common symptoms include nosebleeds, easy bruising, bleeding in the gut or into the joints, muscle bleeds, umbilical cord bleeding, bleeding in the mouth after dental work, and bleeding during or after surgery or injury.

 

  • Factor XI (11) Deficiency: Factor XI (11) deficiency is an inherited disorder in which the body produces less factor XI (11) than it should or factor XI does not work properly. Factor XI (11) deficiency is also called by some as haemophilia C and is the most common of the rare bleeding disorders and the second most common bleeding disorder affecting women after VWD. Symptoms of factor XI (11) deficiency can vary widely, even within a family, which can make it difficult to diagnose. Common symptoms include nosebleeds, easy bruising, heavy menstrual bleeding (called menorrhagia), and abnormal bleeding during or after surgery, injury, or childbirth.

 

  • Factor XIII (13) Deficiency: Factor XIII (13) deficiency is an inherited disorder in which either the body produces less factor XIII (13) than it should or factor XIII (13) does not work properly. Most people with factor XIII (13) deficiency have symptoms from the time of birth, often bleeding from the umbilical cord. Symptoms may continue throughout life. Common symptoms include nosebleeds, easy bruising, bleeding into joints, bleeding into the brain and spinal cord, bleeding in the mouth (for example, after dental work), poor wound healing and scar formation, bleeding in soft tissue, problems during pregnancy such as miscarriage, bleeding after circumcision, and abnormal bleeding during or after injury or surgery.
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